Dental education practices during COVID‐19: A scoping review – Kerkstra – – Journal of Dental Education


Assessment: Summative methods to know college students’ data acquisition Alon; Amato Objective structured scientific examination (OSCE) May 12, 2020 USA Endodontic division instructors Canvas A digital OSCE was created by way of Canvas to imitate an in-particular person endodontic competency examination. The sort of questions was structured to incorporate subjects associated to supplies, analysis, remedy planning, scientific process, emergencies, problems, and communication. Best pedagogical practices had been applied by way of a number of methods of evaluation: open-ended questions, a number of selection questions, and “fill in the blank” questions. Positive: The “virtual” OSCE performed was total profitable, and the bulk of the scholars had been deemed competent and had been capable of clear from the endodontic division in a well timed method. This digital platform can be utilized for future scientific workouts and to publicity college students to “real-life” endodontics. Negative: A damaging side to this digital format was that it didn’t enable for any “hands-on” actions, that are important for the endodontic occupation. Garcia et al. Case-based digital evaluation July 13, 2020 USA Fourth-year dental college students (n = 48) Zoom The periodontal senior case scientific problem (PSCCC) was performed with a mixture of case-based mostly and written scientific evaluation adopted by on-line small group discussions utilizing digital conferences on Zoom. The goal was to offer fourth-yr college students an alternate for in-particular person senior case shows in a formative evaluation construction the place pupil opinions could be offered and analyzed to use didactic periodontal data to affected person-based mostly experiences. Positive: The instructors, who had earlier expertise with the in-particular person Periodontal Senior Case Clinical Challenge (PSCCC), agreed this was an efficient different. The formative evaluation expertise was optimistic for all members and is being thought-about as a everlasting addition to the dental college curriculum. Negative: No comparability might be made to the in-particular person evaluation scores as a result of this pupil group didn’t meet in-particular person. An extra limitation was this kind of evaluation was very restricted in its scope. In help of authors’ speculation, for every of the six statements within the satisfaction survey, ≥94.44% (34/36) of the scores given by the scholars had been thought-about exceptionally robust scientific help for our pedagogical technique that mixes instructional assets and might be efficiently applied in different packages. Herr; Nelson Recorded lecture and laboratory with images and labels for anatomy evaluation May 4, 2020 USA First yr dental college students Unspecified First-year college students got a keep-at-residence anatomy sensible in lieu of the in-particular person cadaver dissection laboratory time resulting from COVID-19. Forty labeled photos had been offered to the scholars to establish. To assist college students title the recognized constructions, the authors offered a “hit list” of identifiable constructions in addition to permitting college students to make use of the laboratory handbook to know the dissections. Positive: Students scored effectively on the keep-at-residence anatomy sensible for 2020. The common class rating for the sensible was above the earlier 3-yr common by 9.71 share factors. Modification of the “hit list” to characterize the precise laboratory necessities was really useful to assist college students perceive the written materials. Negative: A damaging side of this digital lecture and laboratory evaluation included college students concern data wouldn’t be retained because of the lack of in-particular person, lively dissections. Interested college students might be invited again with the 2021 class to relearn materials in particular person. Holloway et al. Online evaluation in dental know-how choice making June 10, 2020 USA Dental college students (n = 40) Zoom Critical considering associated to learn how to use know-how during dental remedy in addition to rules related to the know-how was evaluated through Zoom on-line evaluation. Technologies data assessed included: tender tissue lasers, Invisalign, electrical handpieces, digital radiography, Vita Easy Shade V, Omnichroma, arduous tissue laser, Prime Scan impressions, intra-oral cameras, Dexis CariVu, and Zoom whitening. Students developed PowerPoint shows to show their data with every of the applied sciences being assessed. Positive: With eight shows comprised of 5 teams of college students, a complete of 112 assessments had been accomplished. Each presentation contained seven classes of ability units that had been assessed by two instructors. From this small pattern, it was concluded vital considering, for this structured ability set happens on as excessive a degree as face-to-face facilitation. This examine reveals vital considering expertise in know-how choice making might be taught by Zoom. Additionally, different vital considering expertise units could possibly be taught by Zoom. Negative: Different ability units weren’t assessed utilizing zoom. Horne et al Synchronous and asynchronous instrumentation instruction and evaluation utilizing video January 7, 2021 USA First-year dental hygiene college students at University of Mississippi Medical Center School of Dentistry (n = 17–20 college students) Big Blue Button and Flipgrid Instruction was offered utilizing FlipGrid and Big Blue Button. Live periods had been held by way of Big Blue Button, and prerecorded movies had been developed and posted on FlipGrid. Students used FlipGrid to submit self-recorded movies of instrumentation follow for suggestions. Additionally, exploring and calculus elimination sensible exams had been scheduled in FlipGrid. Positive: Results evaluating remaining sensible examination efficiency in comparison with earlier 3 years (interquartile ranges of 9.3 in 2020, 5.7 in 2019, 4.6 in 2018, and 5.8 in 2016) as anticipated of new approaches. Exam scores point out college students continued to progress regardless that studying was disrupted. Negative: Flipgrid was not designed as a dependable video administration system. A second lesson discovered was web availability was not constant. Hytonen et al. OSCE July 13, 2020 Finland Fourth-year dental college students (n = 179) Moodle digital studying atmosphere Because this examination is required to satisfy the factors for dental college completion, the authors modified the in-particular person nationwide OSCE to a web-based OSCE with eight query classes, every together with 1–6 questions. Students needed to cross all eight classes to cross the OSCE. If they didn’t, they needed to retake the examination. Positive: The cross price within the eight query classes ranged from 50% to 70%. Students had on common a optimistic angle towards the net examination beforehand, and so they felt that they acquired enough data regarding the examination. Negative: The digital OSCE included technical points, time administration, and readability/high quality points with instance photos used. Kakadia et al. OSCE June 11, 2020 USA Instructors and college students Harvard School of Dental Medicine (n = 36 college students and n = 20 examiners [two for each of the 10 disciplines]) Zoom breakout rooms The Zoom platform was used for the OSCE with the “breakout room” characteristic, which permits personal mini periods (one-on-one) between host-chosen members. Twenty-one preassigned rooms had been created with two examiners assigned to every room. Students got 6 min in every room to current self-discipline-particular circumstances. Examiners used Qualtrics or arduous copy to grade. Positive: Most college students felt the net OSCE in contrast equally to the normal OSCE as a result of college students had been capable of absolutely show their data. Examiners famous calibration and pre-OSCE run-throughs had been vital to the success of the OSCE. Negative: The digital OSCE was associated to technical difficulties. Khalaf et al. Online evaluation/exit examination July 20, 2020 UAE Final-year dental college students (n = 65) Microsoft Teams and Blackboard The on-line evaluation, exit examination, was created to switch the in-particular person evaluation that measures college students’ data, scientific expertise, attitudes, skilled qualities, and experience for secure and competent dental follow. This is a excessive stakes examination given previous to commencement from dental college. Online written exams (MCQ, MEQ, and OSCE) had been created and administered with Blackboard, and the oral examination part was given utilizing Microsoft Teams. In addition to utilizing Respondus Monitor for examination honesty, instructors required college students to affix Teams conferences through cellphones, so college students might be monitored for dishonest and/or IT assist stay whereas taking the exit examination. Positive: The excessive-stakes examination was applied on-line and accepted by all stakeholders. Authors famous the outcomes for the net exit examination had been just like the earlier in-particular person, pen, and paper examination. No formal evaluation was in contrast. Negative: The examination from college students’ views included inadequacy of time for the MEQ half, prevention of backtracking within the MCQ half, and minor technological points. Those raised by instructors had been elevated time required to finish the examination setup and grading in comparison with the paper-based mostly examination and minor technological points. Both college students and instructors had been happy with the net examination with the latter being extra happy than the previous. Meyer et al. Video recordings to simulate in-particular person oral well being interviews evaluation May 23, 2020 USA Second-year dental college students in a pediatric dentistry course (n = 83) Zoom Second-year dental college students recorded themselves delivering oral healthcare counseling and pediatric dental remedy plans utilizing a Zoom platform. An asynchronous teledentistry format was used as a alternative for in-particular person interviews. Students responded to standardized affected person questions and delivered a prioritized listing of remedy choices. They had 24 h to organize and submit a 5–10-min video for grading. Examiners used rubric with a 4-level Likert scale to evaluate college students’ efficiency. Positive: This modification was profitable in offering college students a possibility to show oral well being counseling and remedy planning. Additionally, peer-to-peer reflection helped college students perceive vital ideas. Negative: The digital standardized affected person expertise included poor apparel and professionalism during the recorded affected person encounter. This might be remedied with extra steerage relating to evaluation expectations. Instruction: Changes to course design to facilitate new studying environments Aguilar-Galvez et al. Virtual studying object (VLO) August 18, 2020 Peru 10 professional pediatric dentists and 25 dental college students with the analysis of dental caries Virtual/unspecified VLO was created to study the analysis for dental caries. The VLO included flexibility, personalization of instructing, modularity, adaptability, reuse in different contexts, sturdiness, and gamification. The full course of of development of the VLO for use in managing studying in dentistry included 4 foremost levels: (1) development of the VLO, (2) validation by 10 specialists, (3) evaluation of studying, and (4) evaluation of the VLO by college students. Positive: The 13 dental college students uncovered to the VLO group accurately answered 90% of the questions evaluated, in relation to the 12 college students uncovered to the digital synchronous class group who accurately answered 40% of the identical questions evaluated. The college students’ opinions had been very favorable. Negative: None had been famous. Banava et al. Flipped classroom method November 23, 2020 USA Dental college students with caries threat evaluation (n = 119) Zoom breakout rooms, Zoom polls, Kahoot A flipped classroom method was used to maneuver the caries threat evaluation (CRA) case-based mostly situations and remedy planning to a web-based format. Students had been preassigned a studying task and a quiz previous to the net session. A quick presentation on Zoom together with “polls” was used to interact college students. Kahoot was used to evaluate college students’ data with a number of selection questions earlier than the case-based mostly situations had been introduced. Students had been divided into groups and assigned Positive: The survey outcomes measured the use of Kahoot within the CRA workshop. Of the 119 college students who rotated by way of the workshop in three periods, 113 college students (95%) discovered CRA digital workshop participating and enjoyable; 99 college students (83%) steered utilizing Kahoot in different subjects; 103 college students (86.5%) agreed on Kahoot being a simple-to-use sport. A few college students wanted extra directions to make use of Kahoot to finish the quiz, however total, the interactive on-line methods labored to interact dental college students. Negative: None had been famous. to Zoom breakout rooms to collaborate and formulate a remedy plan based mostly on their case situations. The groups then introduced their circumstances and remedy plans to their friends and instructors. Iyer et al. Flipped classroom method June 21, 2019 USA Dental college students with a periodontal recall go to (n = 144) Webex/Cisco A flipped classroom method was used for the instruction of remedy planning a periodontal recall go to. This included movies and questions that had been mentioned with instructors in a synchronous seminar. Positive: Students appreciated the profit of one particular person posing a query and having a number of schools supply responses in actual time. Students gave optimistic suggestions on the tempo, effectivity, and the educational effectiveness. Negative: Instructors and college students had been unable to make use of cameras resulting from connectivity points. Miller et al. Flipped classroom method September 17,2020 USA Dental college students with group well being Canvas A group well being subject venture was transformed to a completely on-line flipped classroom method. Students had been damaged up into groups of three and instructed to decide on a group social company or dental clinic to conduct a digital tour and create a case presentation. After every staff introduced their case data to friends and instructors, college students individually submitted reflections utilizing the 4Fs framework: info, findings, emotions, and future. Positive: The flipped classroom method labored effectively for the subject and elegance of instruction. The particular person considerate reflections confirmed astonishment by some college students on the cruel group circumstances, poverty, and their discovery of the difficult facets of the social determinants of well being. Negative: Lack of sufficient class/Zoom time to completely talk about every pupil’s reflection. Moore et al. Transition to ExamN/eProctor for college students, instructors, and workers as described by the Academic Support Center May 20, 2020 USA Dental college students, instructors, workers Zoom, Echo360, eProctor Facilitating and recording stay digital conferences, Zoom and Echo360, software program minimally utilized by the varsity, had been maximally used. By March 15, CODA introduced a requirement for testing to incorporate identification verification and on-line proctoring. The present safe testing resolution ExamN, by AllofE within the eMedley suite, contained an choice for on-line proctoring referred to as eProctor. The staff assessed the product and alternate options for compliance. eProctor was chosen and applied with the primary examination on April 1. Positive: The educational help middle staff recommends continued coaching to have a finest follow with distant instruction and to assist instructors guarantee participating instructional experiences for college students. Student satisfaction with Zoom: −35% extraordinarily happy, 42% happy, 19% neither happy nor dissatisfied, 4% dissatisfied; instructors’ satisfaction with Zoom: −22% extraordinarily happy, 67% happy, 11% neither happy nor dissatisfied. Negative: None had been famous. Mupparapu et al. Dental radiology hybrid program for lecture and laboratory parts August 12, 2020 USA D3 college students at Penn Dental School (n = 162) Canvas D3 college students accomplished a 2-h distant “introduction to radiology clinics” with Canvas. Following college students had been required to cross a summative examination performed through Examsoft. Remote radiology coaching additionally included individualized instruction in Axium, MiPACS software program, and intraoral place utilizing RINN XCP instrumentation and a number of other direct acquisition digital intraoral imaging programs when scientific operations resumed. DXTTR-based mostly radiographic coaching periods resumed on July 7 continued till October 1, 2020. Each hour-lengthy coaching session included a radiographic examine of 18 photos utilizing a CCD sensor. Students acquired coaching in recording radiographic findings utilizing a templated interpretation type (RADCON), which prompted college students to enter knowledge relating to caries, crestal bone ranges, marginal, and apical periodontium. Positive: All college students had prior data of XCP meeting, radiation hygiene, disinfection protocols, applicable use of private protecting tools (PPE) in a radiology setting, and publicity parameters. This hybrid program was designed to organize D3 college students for scientific actions with out compromising the standard of dental care. Negative: None had been famous. Nair et al. Extramural Program May 26, 2020 USA Fourth-year dental college students at The University of Iowa College of Dentistry and Dental Clinics (n = 20) Rapid oral well being deterioration (ROHD) threat evaluation software A digital instructional method was created to switch the canceled additional-mural coaching together with the geriatric and particular-wants program. Students recognized all related data from the affected person’s medical, oral, and socioeconomic situation and used these to find out the affected person’s threat for speedy oral well being deterioration (ROHD) threat evaluation software and supply rationale remedy plans. Their responses had been detailed and mirrored particular person choice-making types. Positive: Students recognized all related data from the affected person’s medical, oral, and socioeconomic situation and used these to find out the affected person’s threat for speedy oral well being deterioration (ROHD) threat evaluation software and supply rationale remedy plans. Their responses met the usual for the digital task. Negative: None had been famous. Nelson et al. Virtual early childhood oral well being coaching program (EChOTrain) November 17, 2020 USA Second-year pre-licensure dental hygiene college students (n = 37) Zoom The in-particular person didactic content material for the EChOTrain program was moved to distant synchronous lecture in 2020. The 2019 cohort (n = 8) acquired all content material through in-particular person lecture. The 2020 cohort (n = 29) acquired all content material through synchronous distant lecture. Prior to the start of this system, college students obtain pre- and postassessment surveys to gauge data pediatric hygiene procedures. Self-assessments had been scored on a numerical Likert scale, de-recognized, and calculated for every query utilizing MS Excel. Positive: The synchronous from our lecture was acquired effectively by college students and allowed the course to develop from 8 to 29 college students. Both cohorts confirmed enchancment based mostly on readiness for scientific follow. This examine demonstrated lectures had been efficient in instructing EChOTrain course content material. Negative: One was technical challenges with the software program. A second damaging side was the instructors’ perceived lack of interplay with college students when their video was turned off. Pastan; Zandona Diaphragmatic respiratory/deep respiratory July 13, 2020 USA D4 college students with Tufts University of Dental Medicine (n = 16 college students, n = 16 instructors, n = 12 workers) In-person huddles preclinic periods Diaphragmatic respiratory is a way that entails sluggish respiratory when the exhale is twice the size of the inhale. Diaphragmatic respiratory analysis reveals a chilled impact on the autonomic nervous system, in addition to stress-free the muscle mass of the physique and lowering emotions of stress and anxiousness. Starting on the primary day, the fourth yr (D4) college students returned to the clinic after the mandated closure of clinic resulting from COVID-19, the diaphragmatic train was applied within the clinic by the instructors earlier than every clinic session. Positive: This unconventional exercise within the dental college atmosphere was welcomed by all members with appreciation and powerful curiosity for it to be continued. The educated instructors started guiding their very own variations of this train within the huddles. The workers and administration benefitted as the scholars did from the calming and anxiousness decreasing results that created a extra relaxed scientific atmosphere higher suited to operator efficiency and affected person care. Negative: Some of the instructors lacked confidence in main the respiratory workouts; nonetheless, they had been open to extra coaching to change into extra comfy. Ramesh et al. Think-pair-share exercise on a digital curricular retreat November 24, 2020 USA Students, instructors, directors at Tufts University School of Dental Medicine curriculum committee (n = 37) Zoom breakout rooms The curricular diversifications made in response to COVID-19 during the spring and summer time 2020 phrases had been assessed by way of the lens of Miller’s Pyramid utilizing a “think-pair-share” format to interact members in dialog. The preassigned groups used the breakout options of Zoom to debate the pandemic-associated Positive: This digital retreat offered a place to begin for modern and unprecedented curricular enhancements for the longer term of dental education. Results from the retreat included figuring out that on-line course can facilitate supply of primary basic content material. Using supplemental movies might be helpful to facilitate class discussions. The goal Ramesh et al. Think-pair-share exercise on a digital curricular retreat November 24, 2020 USA Students, instructors, directors at Tufts University School of Dental Medicine curriculum committee (n = 37) Zoom breakout rooms curriculum modifications for a selected yr and assess their quick and lengthy-time period impression in phrases of what labored, what didn’t, and classes discovered. A stay Google doc was arrange for the groups to enter dialogue notes in actual time. An assigned reporter of the staff reported their abstract to your complete committee after the dialogue. of discussing profitable curriculum diversifications and deciding on the everlasting additions was met. Negative: None had been famous. Rohle et al. Inverted classroom (flipped classroom) mannequin built-in with peer-based mostly instructing expertise laboratory utilizing Moodle August 4, 2020 Germany Medical and dental college students at Technische Universität Dresden (n = 1012) Skills laboratory through moodle Undergraduate human medical coaching for medical and dental college students was moved to a web-based format utilizing an present expertise laboratory based mostly on a peer instructing format. Students discovered primary communication and handbook expertise by way of an inverted classroom follow. Three e-studying modules had been included by way of Moodle: (1) self-studying part I: entry to occupational well being and security directions. (2) Self-learning part II: acquisition of studying content material utilizing Mitz-mobil. (3) Constructive instructing and studying method in Moodle. Positive: This pilot of implementing an inverted classroom mannequin during “emergency mode” resulting from COVID-19 with peer-based mostly instructing was profitable. The instructing modules had been possible, and the peer instructors accepted the inverted classroom effectively. Exploratory analysis of the interviews with the instructors revealed that there have been no main issues. Didactic studying aims ought to differentiate between on-line/Moodle classroom aims and in-particular person classroom aims. Authors decided the inverted classroom mannequin will likely be additional developed as an integral half of common instructing. Negative: None had been famous. Siqueira et al. Synchronous distant lectures and shortened clinic periods December 8, 2020 Canada Dental college students Virtual/unspecified Due to COVID-19, clinic periods had been compressed to shorten the day to assist keep away from commuters touring to campus a number of occasions a day. Additionally, all in-particular person lectures shifted to synchronous distant lectures. Positive: A complete of 67.5% of college students reported being both happy or very happy with the brand new preclinic/clinic scheduling occasions. Also, 66.3% of college students reported the timing of the periods offered extra time within the night to review and for private actions. Instructors reported the standard of dental work didn’t decline. Additionally, some of the appointment prescreening questions had been performed through cellphone name to protect in-particular person clinic time for affected person remedy. Negative: None had been famous. Tan et al. Home-based simulation studying (HBSL) for oral hygiene instruction October 15, 2020 Singapore Dental hygiene college students at Nanyang Polytechnic School of Health and Social Sciences (n = 70) Zoom In class sizes of 22–26 college students, synchronized lectures and demonstrations had been performed by dental hygiene and remedy coordinators and supervisors during scheduled timeslots over 3 weeks. Following discussions, college students cut up into teams of six and used the breakout room operate within the Zoom teleconferencing platform to follow on the manikin heads, with actual-time suggestions from devoted scientific supervisors observing by way of distant supervision, following completion of the three-week HBSL program, a web-based survey was despatched out to all oral well being remedy (OHT) college students utilizing the net scientific diagnostic and analysis help system (CDRSS), Medisys, Singapore) platform. The goal inhabitants included 70 college students, of which 69 returned full responses for the survey, yielding a response price of 98.6%. Positive: The high three facets that college students had been happy with for the HBSL program embrace (1) clear understanding of the aim and aims of the simulation (95.7%), (2) provision of constructive suggestions (92.8%), and (3) help during the educational course of (91.3%). The most vital issue to digital oral well being remedy college students was suggestions and reflection. There was a average optimistic linear correlation between the significance and satisfaction with components in simulation design for the domains of help (0.59), drawback fixing (0.58), and suggestions and guided reflection (0.61), however low optimistic to negligible linear correlation for the opposite domains. All correlations had been statistically important (p < 0.05). In phrases of total pupil satisfaction and self-confidence with studying, imply satisfaction with HBSL was 3.90 ± 0.36. A statistically important distinction was famous between cohorts. The median SCLS scores for first-yr, second-yr, and third-yr OHT college students had been 3.83 (IQR 3.58–4.00), 3.92 (IQR 3.67–4.08), and 4.08 (IQR 3.92–4.25), respectively. Post hoc exams revealed a statistically important distinction between the first- and third-yr cohorts (p < 0.01). This distinction was primarily attributed to variations in “satisfaction with instruction.” The beta coefficient for the third-yr cohort was 0.29 (95% CI 0.09– 0.49). No variations in SCLS scores had been famous for different sociodemographic variables. Negative: None had been famous. Instructional know-how: Virtual platforms for collaboration Aulakh et al. Virtual month-to-month oral and maxillofacial surgical procedure (OMFS) journal membership October 15, 2020 United Kingdom Dental trainees collaborating in journal membership conferences at Bradford Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust (n = 14) Microsoft Teams Microsoft Teams what’s used to facilitate the digital month-to-month OMFS journal membership which generally met in-particular person. A satisfaction survey consisted of a combination of Likert scale and a number of-selection questions aimed to establish the variations in expertise between on-line and face-to-face settings for the membership, together with opinions relating to the setting for future conferences. Positive: 100% response price was acquired. Results from the survey and statistical evaluation point out that almost all of trainees discovered it considerably simpler (p < 0.05) to attend the membership after it had been moved to a web-based setting, with just one participant indicating extra problem in accessing it at present. Trainees usually reported that studying by way of the digital journal membership was more practical than it was face-to-face. Negative: None had been famous. Buchbender et al. Kobra surgical procedure simulator January 15, 2020 Germany Cohort 1: A complete of 59 college students from Friedrich–Alexander University of Erlangen–Nuremberg (FAU) (third-yr, n = 29, with 22 girls and 7 males/group 1; fourth-yr, n = 20, with 17 girls and three males/group 2) and dentists (n = 10, with 5 girls and 5 males/management group) participated, left-handed people had been had additionally excluded. Average age of 24.59. Cohort 2: 17 feminine and three male college students. Average age of 24.40 Oral surgical procedure simulators (Kobra). This simulator consists of a phantom head, a 3D display, a pill for choosing the affected person case perception of related digital affected person knowledge (i.e., X-rays), two 3D glasses (Nvidia 3D and Vision 2), a foot management for the dealing with of the surgical handpiece and a complicated joystick with contact suggestions, a so-referred to as haptic machine Group 1 carried out an apicoectomy on a entrance tooth; group 2 carried out an extraction of a decrease knowledge tooth, and the management group all performing surgical procedures inside a ten-min time restrict. Comparisons had been made. They examine hypothesized that dental college students will carry out extra correct surgical procedure simulator when in comparison with teacher dentists.

Positive: Primary consequence—goal parameters

• Simulation of an apicoectomy of an higher entrance tooth (group 1 vs. management group).

The speculation was not met. Students didn’t carry out extra correct surgical procedure utilizing the simulator. The Mann–Whitney U take a look at revealed no important variations (p < 0.0083) in each teams regarding the elimination of gutta-percha (p = 0.020), dentin (p = 0.010), and tooth (p = 0.009). The college students tended to have greater quantities of elimination within the parameters, besides the parameter of contaminated tissue, the place dentists had the next quantity of elimination.

• Simulation of knowledge tooth extraction (group 2 vs. management group).

The variations between group 2 and the management group confirmed no significance based on the Mann–Whitney U take a look at. However, the median values between the 2 teams differed regarding the ablation of the pulp (group 1, 6.40 vs. group 2, 1.55) in addition to the bone (128.7 vs. 124.75) and dentin (97.50 vs. 63.95).

Overall, college students confirmed much less exact surgical ability than dentists, particularly within the youthful age group. Between the older group of college students and dentists, there was no statistical distinction. Kobra simulator might present extra scientific expertise for college students and will supply new alternatives for sensible examination providing advantages for the instructors as effectively. Negative: Computer surgical simulation can not exchange palms-on coaching. Laurence et al. Software Epidemix 2 for infectious illness modeling June 26, 2020 USA Undergraduate dental college students and policymakers (in every session on common 20 college students participated, of which 16 accomplished course analysis) Zoom The Epidemix 2 software program was used to develop a digital course in infectious illness modeling the place college students explored developments within the transmission of COVID-19. Virtual instruction was offered on Zoom. A demonstration of software program Epidemix 2 was performed after major course content material had been coated. Positive: All the scholars mentioned the course was very helpful (87.5%) or considerably helpful (12.5%) in bettering their understanding of infectious illness modeling. Negative: None had been famous. Lee et al. Process to forestall dishonest during on-line assessments June 27, 2020 South Korea 86 college students A pill PC with a face-monitoring operate, a Zoom video, and a random query sequencing operate in a Computer-Based Test Remote evaluation is proctored and, due to this fact, presents challenges with dishonest and equity. Authors applied earlier than, during, and after methods to discourage dishonest during distant assessments. Students took a take a look at ethics pledge earlier than testing. During testing, they recorded themselves with a pill PC digicam to file the room, a Zoom video recording the face, and a random ordered pc-based mostly take a look at. After offering an inventory of dishonest behaviors, penalties had been imposed on college students who cheated. Positive: For 92% (n = 79), the facial actions had been inside the acceptable vary. A Zoom video evaluation for the seven remaining college students was performed, two of whom got penalties for suspected dishonest. Postassessment pupil surveys indicated that the face monitoring know-how, Zoom monitoring, and random query sequencing had been perceived as efficient methods to regulate dishonest by 32%, 95%, and 67% of college students, respectively. Negative: None had been famous. Mahima et al. Google classroom October 06, 2020 India Undergraduate medical and dental college students (n = 163) Google Apps Anatomy digital class was created in Google classroom individually for medical and dental college students, and college students had been requested to affix the category by means of class code. Instructors created lesson supplies like movies and voice over PowerPoint shows. The supplies had been uploaded each day based mostly on the syllabus. Assignments and assessments had been additionally given and graded. Positive: About 163 college students responded to the questionnaire, which was based mostly on a 5-level Likert scale with 5 as strongly agree. Seventy-nine (48.2%) college students had been males, and 85 (51.8%) college students had been females. Overall, the scholars gave optimistic response towards their studying expertise in Google classroom. Negative: A few issues even have been discovered like points relating to accessing course supplies and navigating the system, problem in submission of assignments, poor web connection, and so they additionally needed to make the courses extra interactive. Mansoor Live videoconferencing for distant education with Zoom May 24, 2020 UK Dental college students at Manchester University Dental Hospital (n = 40) Zoom Manchester University dental hospital focuses on enquiry-based mostly studying (EBL) the place the trainer is seen as extra of a facilitator to information the scholars. This sort of studying was applied utilizing video conferencing with the Zoom. Other digital platforms thought-about for EBL had been FaceTime and Adobe Connect. FaceTime didn’t have as many helpful options as Zoom, and Adobe Connect required a registration payment earlier than being allowed to register for a digital class. Positive: Results from the Google Form questionnaires confirmed none of the scholars believed the Zoom education conferences had been higher than their commonplace dental education. Additionally, a small minority of the 40 college students didn’t attend the distant instructional conferences, and the sample of absence is in keeping with some people. Ninety % of the allotted dental college students have acknowledged they discover the distant instructional conferences useful academically and report back to take pleasure in them. This demonstrates a excessive satisfaction among the many respondents. Surprisingly, virtually half of the responding college students reported that the distant instructional conferences have been useful clinically, regardless of the shortage of face-to-face contact or the flexibility to study bodily with their dental teacher. Over half of the allotted dental college students revealed they discovered the distant instructional conferences “better” than the traditional supply of their educational dental education. Negative: None had been famous. Murata et al. Problem-based studying for analysis utilizing Microsoft Teams December 2, 2020 USA First-year dental college students at East Carolina University (n = 52) Microsoft Teams Microsoft Teams was used to facilitate drawback-based mostly studying (PBL) to show proof-based mostly analysis to dental college students. Dental college students labored as a gaggle to deal with a selected drawback through the use of the PBL method: defining the issue, construction a speculation, assemble a studying goal, impartial useful resource assortment, data utility, case presentation and evaluation, and self and peer analysis. After 3 weeks of 2-h periods every week, college students introduced their case to the category and instructors. Positive: Instructors and college students reported optimistic suggestions for the Microsoft Teams platform associated to PBL on-line vital expertise improvement. Microsoft Teams labored effectively in permitting college students to share paperwork and work interactively. Negative: None had been famous. Nishioka et al. Patient simulation with a robotic-SIMROID December 3, 2020 Japan International college students at Tohoku University Hospital (n = 9) Humanoid robotic that simulates a affected person for dental coaching The SIMROID has the flexibility to work together with college students by way of actions, speech, and expressions. It may reply to strain for ache suggestions. Because the SIMROID can reply to a clinician’s voice in Japanese or English, it might be used to construct communication expertise with sufferers. Positive: Feedback from the worldwide college students revealed that almost all (97.7%) answered that the SIMROID was “effective in dental training” as a result of “the robot’s ability to mimic the patient’s response, answer questions, open mouth more realistically, and respond to any uncomfortable procedure.” Negative: High value of the SIMROID robotic, time-consuming upkeep, its want for a specified space for its set up, and just a few college students can follow at a time. Telang Asynchronous e-studying utilizing YouTube, Google Classroom, WhatsApp May 18, 2020 Malaysia Dental college students (n = 225) and instructors (n = 35) Learning administration system (LMS) A YouTube channel was created with entry for the instructors to add voice over lectures and linked on the LMS. Clinical and preclinical procedures movies had been posted on YouTube for pupil understanding. Google classroom was used to conduct dialogue boards quizzes and assessments. WhatsApp was utilized by instructors and college students to encourage personalised interplay and guarantee wellbeing. Positive: Using freely accessible on-line assets confirmed an engagement of 90%–95% for all of the instructing and studying, in addition to 100% compliance to assessments. Take-home exams have proven greater scores whereas the general achievement of outcomes is just like a face-to-face evaluation. Negative: None had been famous. Trowbridge et al. Microsoft Teams personal channels for instructors and pupil rotations in a simulation (SIM) clinic November 21, 2020 USA Midwestern University College of Dental Medicine-Arizona (MWU-CDMA-AZ) second-yr dental college students (teams of 20 college students on 5–six benches) Microsoft Teams In order to accommodate a number of rotations concurrently within the SIM clinic, MWU-CDMA-AZ has applied the use of personal channels in Microsoft Teams software program. A separate personal channel is created for every rotation. Only the instructors instructing the rotation and college students taking part within the rotation are added to the channel. Students are required to convey an digital machine with the downloaded Microsoft Teams software program and a set of headphones. This allowed every teacher to speak with their pupil group with out distractions and whereas adhering to social distancing. Positive: Our use of the personal channels within the Microsoft Teams software program has allowed us to proceed efficient palms-on instruction whereas complying with COVID-19 social distancing necessities. Negative: Need of good Wi-Fi connection to make use of Microsoft Teams. Having all the scholars flip off their movies and mute their audio appeared to enhance the pace of Wi-Fi. Software: Digital packages and instruments to facilitate studying in new digital environments Cheng et al. DenTeach distant instructing-studying platform for dental duties and expertise September 29, 2020 Canada One teacher and one pupil DenTeach platform The DenTeach platform is made of an teacher workstation (DT-Performer software program, DT-Rightway articulator, DT-RealReally feel Sensors, and 4 mini cameras), a pupil workstation (teacher movies, drill mannequin to imitate the trainer, two typodonts, a DT-RealReally feel handpiece, monitor), wi-fi know-how, and cloud-based mostly knowledge storage and retrieval. This platform offers alternative to proceed instructing and studying from a distant location. The platform synchronizes the trainer and the studio with actual time video, audio, really feel, and posture. DenTeach has three modes. In the instructing mode, tactile suggestions for college students can improve their dental expertise whereas studying from the trainer. In the shadowing mode, college students obtain movies to view earlier than starting to follow. In the follow mode, college students use Positive: Teaching and shadowing modes may also help the scholars perceive their work and want for enchancment. Negative: Results for the feasibility of DenTeach present that key efficiency indicators, video views, and graphical stories had been a foul mixture. DenTeach to carry out dental expertise and have the talents evaluated by each the coed and the trainer utilizing key efficiency indices included with the platform. DenTeach is transportable and housed in a small suitcase. It can be utilized anyplace by connecting to Wi-Fi and cloud-based mostly storage. Research in contrast key efficiency indicators taught and discovered with DenTeach versus conventional supply. Corte-Real et al. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) photos for dental anatomy, in-particular person lectures versus webinar lectures March 02, 2021 Portugal First-year undergraduate dental college students from the University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal (n = 40) Zoom for webinar lectures Two instructing approaches had been applied: (T1 cohort) acquired conventional face-to-face lectures with bodily fashions; and (T2 cohort) skilled webinar lectures with CBCT photos. Each lecture lasted for 50 min and was performed twice every week. Both instructing strategies had been applied for a similar interval of time (45 days). Teaching was carried out in a sequential order for all the scholars, first the T1 cohort after which T2 cohort, separated by the introduction of the disrupted procedures of precise and actual pandemic context (restricted motion and social distancing necessities). Students had been voluntarily recruited through an e-mail invitation, within the Zoom video conferencing platform accessed by way of the coed quantity of the University of Coimbra. Positive: Among the 59 first-yr Master college students, 40 dental college students participated on this examine (67.8%). Their imply age was 19.2 (±1.2) years outdated, starting from 18 to 23 years. Male college students comprised 27.5% (n = 11) and females 72.5% (n = 29) of the overall members. The T2 cohort with the upper studying consequence, in theoretical (75.12% ± 6.15%) and spatial orientation (68.75% ± 0.83%) contexts, ensures greater college students’ satisfaction. The outcomes from Pearson’s correlation discovered a statistically important achieve of studying outcomes from T1 to T2. Negative: None had been famous. Gali Microsoft Paint (MS Office) and Pocket Paint cell apps used for preclinical full denture prosthodontics September 12, 2020 India Second-year dental graduates (n = 54) Microsoft Teams platform The on-line course supply for preclinical full denture prosthodontics was held on a Microsoft Teams platform utilizing Microsoft Paint and Pocket Paint cell apps. Students ready a PowerPoint on a selected subject (occlusal rims and anatomical landmarks), which was reviewed by the instructors and additional introduced on-line to their friends (n = 54). The peer-instructing course of was adopted by interactive instructors’ discussions, with the instructors asking main questions randomly to the scholars, explaining and summarizing the content material. The pupil group PowerPoint shows and demonstration movies of occlusal rims had been made accessible to the category to facilitate asynchronous e-studying. Positive: Pocket Paint cell app was an alternate for college students who had been unable to entry MS Paint by desktop or laptop computer. Students agreed (65.3%) group exercise made them really feel accountable and assured. Most college students agreed (61.2%) digital workouts helped in understanding the content material. Negative: Instructors’ discussions took time and persistence, as there was problem in assessing the nonverbal responses of the non-taking part college students. Instructors and college students confronted technical points whereas creating and submitting the quizzes and assignments. Goodacre et al. Three-dimension (3D) Tooth Atlas app from eHuman for at-residence waxing tasks November 23, 2020 USA First-year dental college students (n = 99) Zoom Students in a 3-week intensive course for tooth morphology had been supplied with the instrumentation and supplies required to finish 5 waxing tasks at residence utilizing the 3D Tooth Atlas app. At the identical time, the didactic content material was introduced through 11 webinar periods. A postcourse survey offered pupil views relating to this new expertise. Positive: Students had been capable of successfully full excessive-high quality waxing tasks at residence through the use of step-by-step photos and movies, however the survey indicated an amazing desire for in-particular person instructors’ suggestions. Webinars based mostly on the scholars having studied the 3D Tooth Atlas and an teacher reviewing content material within the Atlas was efficient in instructing the didactic side of tooth morphology as evidenced by the coed grades and survey outcomes. Negative: None had been famous. Iwanaga et al. Three-dimension (3D) digital actuality (VR) used for a web-based lecture on a surgical procedure and associated anatomy January 9, 2021 USA Instructors from the United States and attendees from Japan Spatial digital workspace To be a part of the workspace, all attendees together with the instructors used the VR headset. The lecturers used common instructing slides and movies to indicate the dental surgical procedures and associated anatomy within the VR workspace. In addition, different contents equivalent to a PDF file, an mp4-formatted video, and glb-formatted accent VR belongings had been uploaded in the identical workspace to assist attendees perceive. The instructors might use these extra instruments any time during their lecture. Multiple gadgets might be displayed concurrently along with the principle instructing slides. The instructors might additionally stand anyplace within the Spatial workspace, for instance, beside the slides or away from them. A postlecture dialogue was performed in one other atmosphere in Spatial. Positive: Ability to take a more in-depth take a look at the slides/photos in numerous instructions by attendees, which can’t be achieved with different digital instructing strategies. The use of VR know-how with a stay communication software might be an alternate instructing methodology. Negative: Limited knowledge might be uploaded in Spatial. In Spatial, solely restricted varieties of 3D formatted knowledge can be found. It could be difficult to make use of 3D anatomy knowledge with exact anatomical options in Spatial. Mladenovic et al. Dental Simulator v1.13 for iOS and Android for native anesthetic simulation August 17, 2020 Serbia Fourth-year dental college students on the Department of Dentistry, instructors of drugs University of Pristina (n = 11) Mobile platform Instructors for fourth-yr dental college students instructing a neighborhood anesthetic determined to offer college students education by way of a cell platform. Students used a cell simulator in Serbia over a cell phone during a pandemic from their residence. Through the “Simulation” mode, college students are capable of simulate the process of maxillary infiltration and inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) anesthesia in a 3D atmosphere, with suggestions. The teacher adopted the academic course of by way of the “University Mode” utility, which recorded all of the makes an attempt and errors of the scholars during the 3D simulation. Positive: All respondents (100%) consider (agree and strongly agree) that the appliance helped them to higher perceive the methods of native anesthesia and that it may be of nice assist in studying in different disciplines. Negative: None had been famous. Omar et al. CAE Learning Space for standardized affected person expertise July 15, 2020 USA Dental college students (D1 [n = 60] and D2 [n = 41]) Zoom D1 and D2 college students had been required to have affected person encounters the place they might collect medical and dental historical past data in addition to formulate a remedy plan based mostly on a standardized affected person. The software program CAE Learning Space linked every encounter to a recorded Zoom assembly. The potential of the software program to seize the recorded encounters enabled the instructors to watch these encounters and to offer suggestions. This additionally enabled the scholars to revisit their encounters for self-enchancment. Positive: Students’ suggestions was optimistic for the exercise. Negative: None had been famous. Patterson et al. Mentimeter for embedded quizzing with PowerPoint shows May 14, 2020 Four pediatric dentistry residency packages throughout three states and two time zones Pediatric dental residents (n = 50) Zoom, Microsoft PowerPoint Mentimeter is a cloud-based mostly bundle that permits presenters and recipients to work together in actual time during an uploaded presentation by incorporating numerous codecs of quiz questions and polling queries. Response anonymity eliminates intimidation whereas fostering participation for small teams, whereas for bigger packages, the info collected help presenters in restructuring actual-time content material supply for improved efficacy. Positive: Data recorded during the multilocation interactive session confirmed members answered 61% of 13 questions queried during the presentation accurately, and 83% of seven questions following the presentation accurately. Participating pediatric dentistry residents reported a useful studying expertise. Authors famous Mentimeter was distinctive as a result of it promoted studying actions amongst totally different ranges of learners. Negative: None had been famous. Rath et al. Microsoft Whiteboard for instructing periodontal surgical procedure rules December 11, 2020 Malaysia Final-year undergraduate dental college students of SEGi University (n = 50) Microsoft Teams Authors evaluated college students’ notion of utilizing Microsoft whiteboard as a studying useful resource in comparison with different assets equivalent to PowerPoints and video with Kahoot. Students are usually not conscious of the analysis to forestall the Hawthorne impact, because the lesson plans had been half of the common curriculum. Each session lasts 120 min. Positive: One hundred % of college students responded exhibiting that 92% of the scholars agreed that “students benefited” from Whiteboard periods, adopted by 8% for the video and Kahoot. Negative: None had been famous.