SEOUL — Kim Jong-un has begun his second decade as North Korea’s chief with a vow to alleviate the nation’s persistent meals shortages, state media reported on Saturday — an issue that he inherited from his late father 10 years in the past and has but to repair.
Mr. Kim, 37, presided over a five-day assembly this week of North Korea’s ruling Workers’ Party, which drew extra consideration than regular as a result of it got here on the finish of his first decade in energy.
On Saturday, New Year’s Day, the North’s state media carried prolonged experiences on the assembly. They talked about no diplomatic overtures from Mr. Kim towards the United States or South Korea, and only a transient reiteration of his frequent promise to extend the North’s army energy. But a lot area was dedicated to the topic of meals shortages, which many analysts see as the most important shortcoming of Mr. Kim management.
One of the primary guarantees Mr. Kim made after inheriting energy from his father, Kim Jong-il, a decade in the past was that long-suffering North Koreans would “never have to tighten their belt again.” But that purpose has remained elusive. Several months in the past, Mr. Kim issued a uncommon warning that the North confronted a “tense” meals state of affairs, led to by the coronavirus pandemic and worldwide sanctions in opposition to his nuclear weapons program.
At the celebration assembly that ended on Friday, Mr. Kim pledged to “increase the agricultural production and completely solve the food problem,” specifying manufacturing targets “to be attained phase by phase in the coming 10 years,” the North’s Korean Central News Agency stated.
But Mr. Kim didn’t seem to introduce any vital agricultural measures, besides to forgive all cooperative farms’ money owed to the federal government. He primarily repeated the celebration’s previous exhortations to farmers to make use of extra machines, greenhouses, fertilizers and pesticides. He additionally stated they need to “grasp the greatness and gratitude for the party, state and the social system” and make “collectivism dominate their thinking and life.”
Despite his ambitions to develop North Korea’s financial system, Mr. Kim has by no means made the type of daring, market-oriented modifications that China and Vietnam applied a long time in the past. Instead, he has stored the nation remoted, cracking down on the affect of outdoor info and imposing tight management on the casual markets that many North Koreans have relied on for survival.
“Kim Jong-un was never going to be a reformer by Western standards,” stated Leif-Eric Easley, a professor of worldwide research at Ewha Womans University in Seoul. “He prioritizes his family interests above national security, prosperity and the rule of law, to say nothing of human rights.”
When Mr. Kim got here to energy a decade in the past on the age of 27, many outdoors analysts dismissed him as an inexperienced figurehead, and a few predicted that he wouldn’t final. But he rapidly established his grip on energy by what South Korean officers referred to as a “reign of terror,” executing scores of senior officers — together with his uncle, Jang Song-thaek — who have been seen an obstacles to establishing a monolithic dictatorship.
Under Mr. Kim’s rule, North Korea has turn into one of many only a few international locations that may threaten the United States with a nuclear missile. Of the six nuclear checks the North has carried out, 4 have been underneath his watch.
Mr. Kim’s authorities has additionally examined three intercontinental ballistic missiles that it claims might ship nuclear warheads to half or the entire United States. It was the North’s rising nuclear risk that between 2018 and 2019 compelled President Donald J. Trump to satisfy thrice with Mr. Kim, within the first summit talks between the 2 nations.
But North Koreans have paid a harsh value for Mr. Kim’s nuclear ambitions.
The United Nations imposed financial sanctions that banned the entire North’s main exports. The nation’s financial system shrank by 3.5 p.c in 2017 and by 4.1 p.c in 2018, in response to estimates from South Korea’s central financial institution. It recovered barely in 2019, however then the pandemic hit, forcing the North deeper into isolation. Its financial system shrank once more final 12 months, by 4.5 p.c.
Mr. Kim’s efforts to get the sanctions lifted collapsed in 2019, when his diplomacy with Mr. Trump ended with no settlement. At a Workers’ Party congress in January, Mr. Kim admitted that his efforts to rebuild the North’s moribund financial system had failed.
There aren’t any indicators that North Korea is at risk of the type of devastating famine that it suffered within the late Nineties. But its grain manufacturing totaled solely 4.69 million tons this 12 months, leaving a scarcity of 800,000 tons, in response to estimates launched this month by South Korea’s Rural Development Administration. In July, the United States Department of Agriculture estimated that 16.3 million individuals within the North — 63.1 p.c of the inhabitants — have been “food insecure.”
In the previous, North Korea has made up for its agricultural shortfalls with overseas assist and imports. But in response to Covid-19, it has rejected outdoors assist and shut its borders, making it more durable to import fertilizers or farm gear from neighboring China, the North’s solely main buying and selling associate and donor. Pandemic restrictions have additionally damage the nation’s unofficial markets, which helped flow into meals.
Mr. Kim’s emphasis on boosting meals manufacturing signifies that North Korea will persist with his “self-reliant” financial coverage whereas it copes with the pandemic, analysts say. The North has additionally braced for a protracted diplomatic confrontation with Washington since Mr. Kim’s diplomacy with Mr. Trump collapsed.
North Korea has claimed that it had no Covid-19 circumstances, and it has rejected gives of hundreds of thousands of vaccine doses, leaving its inhabitants susceptible to explosive outbreaks ought to its borders reopen. It has additionally rejected the Biden administration’s repeated provide to renew dialogue “without preconditions,” insisting that Washington should first finish what the North calls its “hostile policy,” together with the sanctions and its joint army workout routines with South Korea.
At the identical time, North Korea has resumed missile checks since 2019, exhibiting that it continues to develop more and more refined, nuclear-capable weaponry — Mr. Kim’s Most worthy leverage in opposition to Washington.
During the celebration assembly this week, Mr. Kim stated circumstances demanded that “bolstering the state defense capability be further powerfully propelled without a moment’s delay.” He additionally referred to as it a “top priority” to tighten loopholes within the North’s marketing campaign in opposition to the pandemic.
“His extremely cursory mention of inter-Korean relations and foreign policy indicates that North Korea was not ready to come out for contacts with South Korea or the United States in the new year,” stated Cheong Seong-chang, director of the Center for North Korean Studies on the Sejong Institute outdoors Seoul.
“Faced with the pandemic, North Korea is expected to continue to keep its borders shut, focusing on self-reliance and conducting only the minimum of essential trade with China,” Mr. Cheong stated.